Elijah Daniels Seminole Scout

Elijah Daniels

Seminole (Creek) Scout

Elijah Daniel was born in Arkansas. He enlisted with the Scouts in October of 1871 and served until May of 1876. Sometime after 1878 he served as Chief of the Seminole Negroes. Mr. Daniel died on 12 January 1908 and is buried in the Seminole Negro Scout Cemetery in Brackettville, TX

The Elijah Daniels Band of Seminole-Negroes came from Fort Duncan at Eagle Pass to Fort Clark during the summer of 1872 establishing a village below the fort along Las Moras Creek. These remarkable men, and their descendants, faithfully served the U.S. Army as Scouts with uncommon gallantry for 42 years until the unit was disbanded in September 1914. No Scout was ever lost or wounded as a result of action with the enemy! Although the scouts never at any time mustered more than fifty men, four scouts won the congressional medal of honor for their conspicuous bravery and coolness under fire.

“It might as well be understood at once that no distinction will be made in reference to color of soldiers wearing the uniform of the United States.”  – Lt. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan

courtesy – Fort Clark Museum
Brackettville, Texas


Seminole Nation Bands Are Matrilineal

The band was one of the two major elements of Seminole Society.  Originally, each band was a separate Tribe which later joined with the others to form the Seminole Tribe in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. Throughout the history of the Seminole Nation, the band was of primary importance to the Seminole people.

The band was the center of religious life; first with the great annual ceremonies such as the Green Corn Dance, and later with the churches. It was also the center of political and legal life. The band Chief, his assistant, and one of the band counselors from each band formed the Tribal Council. Within the band, the band Chiefs and the counselors made the laws for that band and served as a court to settle disputes within the band. The band also was a focus of economic life for the Seminole. Each band had a communal field which was worked by all of its able-bodied members. The produce of the field was under the control of the Chief and was used to feed guests, provide for orphans and the destitute, and to help with the expenses of running the band.

Through time, the number of bands has been steadily reduced, as some bands died out or joined with other, related bands. In the 1830’s in Florida, there may have been as many as 35 bands, in 1860 there were 24, and by 1879 there were only 14 bands – the current number. In 1866, two new bands were recognized. These were both Freedmen bands composed of Negroes who had been associated with the Seminole since before removal.

Band membership was determined by birth and a person belonged to the band of their mother. While it was possible to change bands, this required the permission of both bands; and band membership was usually for life. Bands were frequently known by the name of their Chief and therefore the names would frequently change when a new Chief was selected. The bands were also known on occasion by their old tribal names.  

Seminole Tribal Bands

Caesar Bruner

 * Ceyvah

Dosar Barkus


 * Fushatche







* Mekasukey

 * New Comer

 Nvrcvp Haco


* Rewahle

* Talahassee


* Thomas Palmer

 * Tvsekia Haco

 Wm. Connor

 * were red/war towns

the rest were white/peace towns


 Mvskokee Speaking Towns



New Comer




Tvsekia Haco

Tom Palmer


Hecete Speaking Towns




Nvrcvp Haco

The Black Seminoles’ Long March to Freedom


  The Black Seminoles, now called Seminole Maroons by ethnologists, are a group of people who live in Oklahoma, Texas, the Bahamas, and Coahuila, Mexico. Their ancestors were runaways from the plantations of South Carolina and Georgia beginning in the late seventeenth century who sought refuge in Spanish-controlled Florida. They lived among the Seminole Indians and were closely associated with them, but they maintained a separate identity and preserved their culture and traditions. Following the First and Second Seminole Wars (1817 -1818 and 1835 1842) some escaped to the Bahamas and others were removed with their Native American allies to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Ten years later some of them moved to Mexico where their descendants, known as Indios Mascogos still live. After the Civil War, a group of them moved to Texas, where in the 1870s and 1880s, they served with the U.S. Army on the Texas frontier as the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts.

Their quest involved contact with Native Americans, Spanish, British and American soldiers, settlers, traders and government officials. They suffered and survived deprivation, exploitation and destitution. Today their descendants celebrate the persistence and perseverance of their ancestors.

Our people have lived in Texas for over 100 years. Before that, we were in Mexico, where some of us still live and before that we were in Oklahoma, and even earlier than that, Florida. And before that, we came from Africa. As far as weve come, in all our travels, we have never lost an awareness of our identity and pride in our freedom, because it is our freedom which makes us different from other Americans of African descent.

—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson


The experience of the Black Seminoles was similar to other maroon societies which proliferated throughout the Americas before slavery was abolished. Because they were in constant fear of being recaptured, they defended their freedom by developing extraordinary skills in guerilla warfare. They were proactive in finding ways to survive economically in new environments and they were savvy in their interaction with Native Americans. Leaders emerged from their communities who were skilled at understanding and negotiating with whites. Most important, all of these maroon communities, borrowed and blended elements of their experiences and integrated them into their own African heritage.

Historically the central question for those who came in contact with the Black Seminoles was whether they were African or American Indian. This issue of classification hounded them throughout their search for freedom. Individuals, agencies and institutions labeled them for their own purposes, more often than not determined by their own vested interests.

Today the Black Seminole community in Texas refer to themselves as Seminoles to set themselves apart from other Blacks and to emphasize the pride that they have in their unique history of having run away and resisted slavery. For similar reasons, the descendants living in Coahuila, Mexico, refer to themselves as Indios Mascogos, and in Oklahoma as Freedmen.

In the I 7th century our ancestors fought against slavery and escaped into the northern bushlands of Spanish FIorida. There we joined our Indian brothers and sisters who had also escaped from the oppression of the European slavers; together, for many years, we resisted their attempts to recapture us.

—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson


When the first fugitive slaves from Charleston arrived in Spanish St. Augustine, Florida, in 1687, they were given refuge and were integrated into a cohesive, multiracial, multicultural community. The men worked as cartwrights, jewelers, butchers, and innkeepers, while the women worked as cooks and laundresses. Some even owned small businesses. Interracial unions and marriages were common. This open society, bolstered by a relaxed attitude toward slavery and race, made it possible for slaves to use the courts to change their status, to lodge complaints against ill treatment, or to change owners. Those who were free acquired property, often converted to Catholicism and served in the militia. In this regard the Spanish were not entirely altruistic. They were willing to grant freedom to the Blacks and expected loyalty and service in return.

In 1838, the Spanish governor established a settlement for the runaways called Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, becoming the first free Black settlement in North America. The residents of Mose, some one hundred men, women and children came in contact with various bands of Indians living nearby. In this multilingual environment, they no doubt adopted folkways of their neighbors and absorbed some of them into their ranks. On this frontier, these Blacks showed an ability to adapt, to be creative and to survive. Even with the support of the Spanish who gave them supplies and building materials, it took intelligence and determination to forge lives for themselves and their families.


At the same time the Blacks were establishing themselves at Mose, bands of Creeks split off from the main body of their tribe, dislocated through war and conflict, drifted into northern Florida. These people were called Seminoles. The name Seminole comes from the Spanish word cimaroon meaning “fugitives” or “wild ones” and was incorporated into the Creek language. The English word “maroon” comes from the same Spanish source.

Slavery among the Seminoles was not new. They captured other Indians in battle, “adopted” them into their tribe to replace members who had been killed and treated them amicably. Some Black slaves were purchased, others were given as “gifts” to chiefs by the British who had acquired Florida from the Spanish in 1763. Many of these Blacks lived independently in villages separate from their Indian “owners.” This independent living was the foundation of a new social group. They were efficient and productive farmers, owned livestock, and armed themselves against intruders. In deference to the Indian chief, they paid an annual tax, usually corn or some other foodstuff to be used for the common good. In return for their allegiance they were given the protection of the larger Seminole Indian community. An American general aptly described the relationship between the two groups as “vassals and allies.”

Gradually the distinction between who was slave and who was free blurred and the two communities, Black and Indian, were interdependent. The Blacks adopted Seminole ways of living and dressing. They spoke their own language, Creole, as well as English, Spanish and Indian dialects. They also understood the Europeans because they had lived on plantations.

These skills made them invaluable to the Seminoles as interpreters, go-betweens and advisors. Life for the Blacks amongst the Indians was idyllic, far different than it had been under the strict codes of plantation slavery. They were free and independent and they thrived under these conditions.


By the early 19th century the Blacks and Seminoles had established such strong communal ties that they banded together to fight side by side defending their land and their freedom. Their adversaries were the Americans who wanted to annex Florida and to prevent its use as a haven for fugitive slaves.

During the First Seminole War (1817-1818) General Andrew Jackson invaded Florida, destroyed Black and Indian towns, burned Spanish forts and routed the British. In this chaos, some Blacks fled to the Bahamas where some of their descendants now live. Ultimately Jackson captured Pensacola and the Spanish ceded Florida to the United States in 1821. During this conflict Blacks were recognized for their aggressive military prowess.

In 1823 some Seminole Indian leaders were induced to move to a reservation in Florida and to return any runaway slaves that did not “belong” to them. In typical “divide and rule” fashion, the Indians were warned that the Blacks cared nothing for them, but only wanted their protection from enslavement. Later the Indian Removal Act of 1830 decreed that the Indians would be removed to the West. The Blacks feared that if they assembled at one place along with their Indian allies to be transported, they would be returned to slavery.

They took the lead in stirring up resistance to removal and joined the Seminoles in a guerilla war known as the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). It turned out to be the longest and most expensive war in the United States to date. Once again, the Blacks proved to be courageous fighters and served prominent roles as advisers, spies and intermediaries. Their influence on the Seminole Indian chiefs prompted General Thomas S. Jesup to say: “This you may be assured is a negro and not an Indian War.” To end this long, bloody and costly war Jesup resorted to expedience. He granted freedom to the Blacks if they would go West as part of the Seminole Nation.

This war turned out to be a “War of Independence” for the Blacks. Some authorities say that this was the time that they emerged as a distinct social group because they shared the experience of running away, resisting slavery and fighting for that freedom. It was evident not only to themselves but to the outside world that they possessed the skills and intellect to subsist on their own and to create self-sufficient communities. In the years to come, this determination to remain separate and independent would face other challenges as they searched for a home where they could live as free men.

When we had to leave for safer territory in the 1830s to escape the slave raids in Florida, we went to Indian Territory and settled along the Canadian River in what is today Oklahoma. But slave raids continued from nearby states. In our search for peace, we left once again and went to Mexico, though some of our people stayed behind in Oklahoma, where their descendants still live today.

—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson


Once settled in the Indian Territory (1841-1850) the Black Seminoles and the Seminole Indians faced another common enemy: the Creeks. The Creeks were intent on enslaving the Black Seminoles and integrating the Seminole Indians into their community. Wild Cat, leader of the Seminole Indians and John Horse, leader of the Black Seminoles, resisted this domination.

Wild Cat didn’t want his power diminished by the Creek chiefs and planned to form a confederation with other southwestern Indians of which he would be the leader. John Horse and his band of Black Seminoles were most concerned about acquiring land where they would be safe from Creek slave hunters. Kidnapping of the Black Seminoles by the Creeks and white slave hunters became so prevalent that John Horse was forced to find ways to leave the territory. He went to Washington, D.C., to negotiate a special removal policy for his people. Unfortunately, nothing came of these efforts so that he was forced to join Wild Cat’s plan to move their bands to Mexico where slavery had been abolished in 1829. The Mexican government promised citizenship to colonists in exchange for helping to maintain peace along the northern border. In 1850, more than 300 Seminole Indians, Black Seminoles and Kickapoo Indians set out for Mexico on the nine month trek to the border.


Upon entering Mexico in July 1850, John Horse exclaimed: “When we came fleeing slavery, Mexico was a land of freedom and the Mexicans spread out their arms to us.” The Black Seminoles eventually settled in Nacimiento (where some of their descendants remain to this day) and the Seminole Indians settled in nearby Muzquiz. Given food subsidies, tools for farming and building materials, the Blacks put them to effective use and soon had a thriving agricultural community. A school and church were established.

One of the requirements for colonists was for the men to serve as a border patrol and protect the towns from raids by Comanche and Lipan Indians. The Black Seminoles once again proved to be excellent soldiers and with their Seminole Indian comrades, they gained a reputation for being loyal troops. In time, however, the Black Seminoles tired of this role, particularly when they were called upon to engage in the civil and foreign conflicts which engulfed Mexico in the early 1860s. This separatism and isolation increased after the death of Wild Cat and the return of the Seminoles to the Indian Territory. When the Civil War ended in the United States, the Black Seminoles looked forward to returning to the United States.

In 1870 a few hundred of our ancestors were asked to come to Texas to fight the Native Americans so that white people could settle in the region. Those Seminoles served as Scouts for the U.S. Army out of Ford Duncan in Eagle Pass and Fort Clark in Brackettville, where we live today.

—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson


At the end of the Civil War more white settlers moved to the Southwest and used the Overland Trail to cross Texas into New Mexico, Arizona and California. This brought them in conflict with southwestern Indian tribes, among them the Comanches and the Apaches, who had been relocated from their traditional hunting grounds to reservations in the New Mexico Territory. In retaliation, they raided white settlements, stole livestock and horses and destroyed property.

Army personnel at frontier bases in Texas were ill-equipped to stop the raids, track down and confront the fast-moving Indians. Nor did they have the necessary manpower to guard the porous Texas border. What they needed were experienced Indian fighters who knew the rugged terrain of the borderlands, understood the ways of the Indians and could speak the border language–a mixture of English and Spanish. The Black Seminoles had a reputation for being fearless fighters, and they were approached by army recruiters. Finally, in 1870, an arrangement was reached with them. The army formed a “Detachment of Seminole Negro Indian Scouts” and enlisted ten Black Seminoles. On July 4, 1870, the men and their families crossed the Rio Grande into Texas.

Under the command of Lieutenant John Bullis, from 1873 to 1881, the scouts went on twenty-six expeditions and were engaged in twelve battles without suffering any losses. They had excellent tracking skills, were precise marksmen and could endure searching for months at a time. Famed for their bravery, four of the Black Seminole scouts were awarded the Medal of Honor in the 1870s for “gallantry in action.”

In return for their services the men were promised salaries, rations, and living quarters for their families at the forts where they were stationed. Some accounts say that they were guaranteed their own land in Texas or in the Indian Territory following their service as scouts. But this promise was never fulfilled in spite of numerous appeals by the scouts and the officers who supported their requests. The War Department claimed not to have land that they could legally give them. Because they were not “ethnic” Indians, the Bureau of Indian Affairs would not honor their claims. In addition, registration for Seminole Indian reservation lands was closed in 1866, thus excluding the Black Seminoles from this opportunity.

By the 1880s the number of enlisted scouts was cut back and their rations reduced. In spite of such setbacks, they continued to live on the Fort Clark military post. It was a precarious existence, however, and the group was often destitute. The unenlisted men found extra work on nearby ranches. Some of the women worked as laundresses. But as the Indian wars declined, the scouts were transferred to custodial and constabulary work and were finally disbanded in 1914. The same year, their dependents were told to leave the post where they had lived for more than a generation.

We have given our loyalty and our skill to our country, and we have contributed to its history I can rest now, knowing that this has been recognized at last, and that future schoolchildren, both American and Seminole, will learn the part we have played in the growth of our great nation.

—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson


Even though the Black Seminoles never numbered more than several hundred at any given time, they have a special place in the history of Blacks in America. Their contribution is one which illuminates how personal and group determination overcame barriers of discrimination, poverty and deprivation. What emerged from their wanderings was a sense of identity, self-awareness and confidence which permitted them to keep moving in pursuit of a place to call their own, in pursuit of freedom. Out of the nightmare that was slavery, this is a heroic story of a people who persevered and managed to survive constant setbacks and repeated removals in an effort to achieve self-determination, justice and liberty.

– courtesy City College Library

Chronological History of the Fort King Site

1835 – 1842:  The Second Seminole War, was the longest of the US Indian Wars; the only war  longer was the Vietnam War.

1826: Gad Humphreys built the first Seminole Agency in what is now Ocala, near where Fort King would be erected.

March 1827: Fort King was built. The fort was named for Colonel William King who had commanded the Fourth Infantry before Brevet Brigadier General Duncan L. Clinch.

October, 1834:  Osceola was recognized as a Seminole leader opposed to emigration at talks between the US Government and the Seminoles held at Fort King.

June 1835: The Seminole Agent, General Wiley Thompson puts Osceola in chains at Fort King.  Osceola is released after he agrees to emigrate.

December, 23, 1835:  108 soldiers commanded by Major Francis L. Dade, left for Fort Brooke on Tampa Bay on a march to reinforce Fort King.

December 28, 1835:  Micanopy attacks and defeats Major Dade. This battle is commonly referred to as the “Dade Massacre.” Osceola and 80 warriors killed Agent Thompson and Lt. Constantine Smith outside Fort King. The Seminoles raided the nearby sutler’s store of Erastus Rogers. Rogers, a clerk, and a boy were killed and the building was set on fire.   These two events are considered as the beginning of the Second Seminole War.

May 1836:  Fort King was abandoned and it was burned by the Seminoles in July.

April 1837:  A second Fort King was built. Fort King was the military headquarters for most of  the War. Colonel Duncan Clinch, one of the earliest commanding officers at Fort King, wrote: “From my knowledge of the Indian character, I consider this post of more importance, in controuling (sic) the Indians, and in giving protection and security to the inhabitants of Florida, then any other post in the Territory, as it is in the immediate vicinity of the largest number of the Florida Indians, and between them and the white inhabitants.”

1839: Major General Alexander Macomb convened “peace talks” at Fort King.

1840:  The last fighting at Fort King took place. Sixteen men, led by Captain Gabriel Rains on a  scouting mission, were attacked just outside the fort. They fought their way back into the fort;  three soldiers were killed.

August 14, 1842:  The War was declared over.

August 15, 1842:  The soldiers killed in the war, including Dade’s troops and 34 soldiers who died at Fort King, were reburied under the “Coquina Pyramids” at the National Cemetery in St. Augustine.

1844:  Marion County was created. Fort King was designated the county seat. The fort’s buildings were used for the courthouse and offices. The first term of the circuit court was held at Fort King in November 1845. The fort was used as the courthouse until a new one was built in Ocala in September 1846.

1920’s:  The last remaining building from Fort King was destroyed by fire.

1927:  The Ocala Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution purchased one acre of land that was thought to have the Fort King cemetery located on it.

1933:  The Ocala Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution erect monument on cemetery site.

1953-1954:   Neil Survey – first archaeological investigation of Fort King (Published in the Florida Historical Quarterly, 1955.)

1968:  Hurricane Gladys blew over a pine tree, exposing a cellar from a building associated with Fort King.

1987:   During the research of Ocala’s Comprehensive Plan, City staff begins to realize how  historically important this site is for Ocala/Marion County, and the nation.

1988-1989:   Ocala applies and receives first matching grant from the Florida Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation for an auger archaeological survey. The north 15 acres are surveyed. Bruce Piatek completed the survey.

1991:  Ocala applies and receives second matching grant from the Bureau of Historic Preservation to do an auger archaeological survey. South 22 acres are surveyed.  Bruce Piatek, after permission from the McCall family, completes auger and ground penetration radar survey.

1991-1992:   Presentation is made to the Pennies for Parks Committee. They recommend it to the County Commission to move forward with the acquisition of the 15-acre parcel and the 22-acre parcel. This is based upon both the historical and environmental importance of the site.

1992:  North 15 acres are acquired. City signs interlocal to maintain and protect park site.

1992:  Negotiations break down on southern piece. 22 acres are not purchased.

1994:  Ocala applies and receives third matching grant from Bureau of Historic Preservation to do an intensive archaeological evaluation of northern 15 acres. (From these surveys we knew that the fort itself was not located on the 15 acres; however, buildings that surrounded the fort and the Seminole artifacts were numerous in this area.) Survey done by Gary Ellis.

1997-1998:  Worked with the Trust for Public Lands to acquire option on northern 22-acreproperty in order to enable Ocala time to apply for additional grants to locate actual fort.

1998:  Option expires from Trust of Public Land, but landowner agrees to not put property up for sale.

1998:  An intensive archaeological study is completed on southern property to locate the stockade walls of Historic Fort King. Survey done by Gulf Archaeology Research Institute, Gary Ellis.

1999:  Site is put on list by Congress (with the help of Congressman Cliff Stearns) and is signed by the President for Park Services to study.

1999:  City, County and State agree to buy the property.

2000:  Southeast Archaeological Center completes assessment of site as a potential national historic landmark.

January, 2001:  The property is acquired. McCall family sells site to City/County. City agrees to maintain and protect site.

May 2001:  National park staff comes to Ocala to hold roundtable discussions on the possibility  of site becoming a National Park.

April 2002:   National Park staff conducts public meetings on Fort King.

October 2002:   Paul Nugent meets with Carol Shull Chief, National Historic Landmarks Survey at Fort King Site.

April 2003:   Landmarks Committee of the National Parks System Advisory Board votes unanimously to recommend Fort King site for designation as a National Historic Landmark.

June 2003:   National Parks System Advisory Board recommends and forwards the nomination to the Secretary of the Interior for her concurrence.

February 24, 2004:  Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton designates Fort King as a National Historic Landmark.

May 4, 2004:  Dr. Janet Snyder Matthews, Associate Director for the National Park Services Cultural Resource Department presents landmark designation to the citizens of Marion County on the Downtown Square.

September 2004:  City, County, State and private organizations pursue National Park Service to develop Fort King as a national park.

December 2005:  Due to lack of funding at the Federal level, national park designation is not pursued by the parks service.

December 2008:  City applies to Bureau of Historic Preservation to do a location archaeological survey to locate out buildings from the Fort in preparation for national park development plan.

March 2008:  City ranks number one in state to receive grant funds for Fort King to archeological survey.

April 2011:  Fort King Heritage Association incorporated in the State of Florida.

March 2012:  Fort King Heritage Association endorsed by both the City Council and Marion County Board of County Commissioners.  Memorandum of Understanding approved.

May 31, 2014:  The Fort King National Historic Landmark opens to the public with a visitor’s center and interpretive walking trail.


Fort King Statement of Importance

Constructed by the U.S. Army in 1827 with native longleaf pines, it was America’s first attempt to establish a presence in the interior of unmapped, wilderness Florida.

On this hilltop outside the fort, occurred some of the most historic and dramatic scenes in American history.

Here, government agents told the Seminoles they must leave Florida or they would be removed by force.

Here the Seminole War Chief Osceola first became known to the world.

Here – You can stand in his footsteps as he slams his knife into the Enforcement Order and challenges the Government to use their force!

“This is our land! You have guns! So have we. Your men will fight! So will ours, til the last drop of our blood moistens the sand.”

Here was garrisoned every regiment of the U.S. Army during the seven year Second Seminole War (1835-42).

Here stood the West Point Officers many of whom 25 years later would command the massive Armies of the North and South during the American Civil War (1861-65).

Here on this hilltop in the wilderness stood a future President of the United States (Zachary Taylor).

Here stood an Army Colonel whose name would be immortalized in American folklore (Icabod Crane).

Here stood thousands of rank and file enlisted men of the U.S. Army many being emigrants from England and Scotland seeking a better life in the West.

Here stood trappers, traders, pioneers, bounty hunters, and black American slaves.

Here were the beginnings of Ocala and Marion County.

After his death in captivity, Osceola was buried with full military honors outside the walls of Fort Moultrie, S.C. Inscribed on his headstone by the U.S. Army are the words ‘Osceola, Patriot and Warrior died January 31, 1838.’

Here At Fort King, we can study Patriotism.

At Fort King we can become one with our past, learn from it, and become a better people.

Seminole Nation, I. T.

Seminoles: A People Who Never Surrendered

 The Seminole are classified among the Muskogean peoples, a group of remnant tribes having joined in forming this division in Florida during the border wars between the Spanish and the English colonists on the Florida-Carolina frontier in the 18th century. The name Seminole, first applied to the tribe about 1778, is from the Creek word ‘semino le’, meaning ‘runaway,’ meaning emigrants who left the main body and settled elsewhere.

In 1817, with the accusation that the Seminole were harboring runaway slaves, Andrew Jackson commanded nearly 3,000 troops to attack and burn the town of Mikasuki, starting the first Seminole War. Shortly thereafter, Spain ceded Florida to the U.S., bringing the Seminole under U.S. jurisdiction. A treaty later provided the tribe with a reserved tract east of Tampa Bay.

In 1832, the Payne’s Landing Treaty took away all Florida land claims from the tribe, and provided for removal to Indian Territory. Ratification of that treaty in 1834 allowed the Seminole three years before the removal was to take place. But under the U.S. government’s interpretation, 1835 (not 1837) ended the three year period prior to removal. The Seminole disagreed, and their bitter opposition resulted in the second, or Great Seminole War. Among the worst chapters in the history of Indian Removal, the war lasted almost seven years and cost thousands of lives. It finally ended in 1842 with the agreement that several hundred members of the tribe could remain in Florida. They stayed in the Florida swamps but never surrendered. Their descendants are the Seminole in Florida today.

No people have fought with more determination to retain their native soil, nor sacrificed so much to uphold the justice of their claims. Removal of the tribe from Florida to the Canadian Valley was the bitterest and most costly of all Indian removals.

Indian Territory

As tribal leaders surrendered during the war, their followers immigrated to the Indian Territory under military escort. The first were led by Chief Holahti Emathla in the summer of 1836. His party, who had lost many of their number by death during the two month journey, located north of the Canadian River, in present Hughes County. Their settlement was known by the name of their influential leader, Black Dirt (Fukeluste Harjo).

In June, soon after the arrival of Chief Mikanopy at Fort Gibson, council was held with the Creek of the Lower Towns. When the matter of location of the Seminole was discussed, Chief Mikanopy and the Seminole leaders refused to settle in any part of the Creek Nation other than the tract assigned them under the treaty of 1833. A treaty signed by the U.S., and delegations of the Seminole and Creek Nations in 1845 paved the way for adjustment of the trouble that had arisen between the two tribes. The Seminole could settle anywhere in the Creek country, they could have their own town government, but under the general laws of the Creek Nation.

By 1849 the Seminole settlements were located in the valley of the Deep Fork south to the Canadian in what is now the western part of Okfuskee and Hughes counties, and neighboring parts of Seminole County. The revered Chief Mikanopy, who represented the ancient Oconee, died in 1849. He was succeeded by his nephew, Jim Jumper, who was soon succeeded by John Jumper, who came to Indian Territory as a prisoner of war. He became one of the great men in Seminole history and ruled as chief until 1877, when he then resigned to devote all his time to his church. Wild Cat, the principal advisor to Chief Mikanopy during his last years, never accepted being under the rule of the Creek Nation. Although his views won out in the end under the Treaty of 1856, he made no profit from it, because six years earlier he left the Indian Territory to start a Seminole colony in Mexico.

By 1868, the refugee tribal bands were finally able to settle in the area that is known as the Seminole Nation. For the first time in 75 years they had a chance of establishing tribal solidarity. Their council house was built at Wewoka, designated capital of the Seminole Nation.

When the Seminole people made their last settlement in Indian Territory, eight tribal square grounds were established in different parts of the nation where the old ceremonials, dances and ball games were held.  Two of these square grounds were known as Tallahasutci or (Tallahasse) and Thliwathli or (Therwarthle). There is still a loose organization of the twelve Seminole “towns” or “bands” that were organized for political and geographical reasons in re-establishing the tribal government that had formerly existed in Florida.

The Century Turns

The Oklahoma Constitutional Convention divided all of Indian Territory into 40 counties, no county being exactly as the
pre-statehood Indian Nation, county or district with the  exception of the Seminole Nation. It remains as Seminole County today.

The Seminole Nation is indeed alive and vibrant with its tribal culture, language, churches, and its art